With developments in big data, open source software and cloud computing, we take a look at how artificial intelligence has evolved over the years.
Infographic timeline details:
Antiquity- Greek myths incorporate the idea of intelligent robots.
1950- The Turing Test, developed by Alan Turing, is a test of a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human.
1956- “Every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it”. John McCarthy played a seminal role in defining the field devoted to the development of intelligent machines. The cognitive scientist coined the term in his 1955 proposal for the 1956 Dartmouth Conference, the first artificial intelligence conference.
1960- The first machine, The Perceptron, learns by trial and error. The Perceptron, was essentially the first implementation of an artificial neural network inspired by the central nervous system of the brain.
1976- First articulated robot arms for assembly lines. The robots built 110 cars per hour- more than double the rate of any automotive plant in existence at the time!
1986- Honda E0- first humanoid robot to walk on two legs. It walked in a straight line on two feet, in a manner resembling human locomotion, taking around five seconds to complete a single step.
1988- Jabberwocky launched- one of the first AI chatbots. The purpose of the project was to create an artificial intelligence that is capable of passing the Turing Test. The first incarnation of this project is created as a programme hard-coded on a Sinclair ZX81.
1997- IBM’s Deep Blue beats Garry Kasparov at chess. Winning the six game match 3 ½ to 2 ½.
2005- Autonomous car drives 132m. The second driverless car competition of the DARPA (the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Grand Challenge was a 132m off-road course. Five driverless vehicles successfully completed the course. The winners were from Stanford University.
2011- IBM Watson wins the gameshow Jeopardy! Competing against Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter, previous winners on the show.
2011- Apple introduces Siri. First seen on the iPhone 4S. Receiving praise for voice recognition and contextual knowledge. Criticised for its inability to understand certain English accents.
2014- Microsoft’s Skype demonstrates a real-time spoken language translation system.
2015- Amazon launches Alexa.
2015- Yearly venture capital investment into AI is over $2 billion.
2016- Google DeepMind’s AlphaGo defeated Lee Sedol at the board game Go. A five-game Go match between 18-time world champion Lee Sedol and AlphaGo.
2017- Elon Musk launches Neuralink, a venture to merge the human brain with AI.
2017- Libratus defeats four top players of no-limit Texas hold’em poker. Libratus runs on a supercomputing centre called bridges using 1.35 Petaflops, about 7,250 times as fast as a high-end laptop.